Niklas Luhmann - Die Politik der Gesellschaft (German Edition)

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Drawing on a diverse range of historical and literary sources, Luhmann retraces the emergence and evolution of the special semantics of passionate love that has come to form the basis of modern forms of intimacy and personal relationships. This classic book by Luhmann has been widely recognized as a work of major importance.

It is an outstanding contribution to social theory and it provides an original and illuminating perspective on the nature of modern marriage and sexuality. Soziale Systeme : Grundriss einer allgemeinen Theorie by Niklas Luhmann Book 70 editions published between and in 3 languages and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide Die Soziologie verharrt zur Zeit vor einer Theorieschwelle.

Klassiker werden mit alexandrinischem Eifer aufgearbeitet, und Theoriebezeichnungen, die sich mit Begriffen wie Handlung, Struktur, System, Interaktion, Evolution verbinden lassen, werden miteinander kombiniert. Systeme lassen sich in einem sehr radikalen Sinne als selbstreferentielle Systeme begreifen. Nach dieser Theoriewende kann man soziale Systeme als solche Systeme begreifen, die alles, was sie als Einheit verwenden - seien es ihre Elemente, ihre Prozesse, ihre Strukturen, ihre Teilsysteme und nicht zuletzt sich selbst -, als Einheit erst konstituieren.

Introduction to systems theory by Niklas Luhmann Book 55 editions published between and in 4 languages and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide Niklas Luhmann ranks as one of the most important sociologists and social theorists of the twentieth century. Through his many books he developed a highly original form of systems theory that has been hugely influential in a wide variety of disciplines. In Introduction to Systems Theory, Luhmann explains the key ideas of general and sociological systems theory and supplies a wealth of examples to illustrate his approach.

The book offers a wide range of concepts and theorems that can be applied to politics and the economy, religion and science, art and education, organization and the family. Moreover, Luhmann's ideas address important contemporary issues in such diverse fields as cognitive science, ecology, and the study of social movements. This book provides all the necessary resources for readers to work through the foundations of systems theory - no other work by Luhmann is as clear and accessible as this.

There is also much here that will be of great interest to more advanced scholars and practitioners in sociology and the social sciences. Political theory in the welfare state by Niklas Luhmann Book 51 editions published between and in 5 languages and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide. Social systems by Niklas Luhmann Book 24 editions published between and in English and Undetermined and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide Germany's most prominent social thinker here sets out a contribution to sociology that aims to rework our understanding of meaning and communication.

Niklas Luhmann – 1986 – Die Selbstbeschreibung der Gesellschaft und die Soziologie

He links social theory to recent theoretical developments in scientific disciplines. Theorie der Gesellschaft oder Sozialtechnologie. Was leistet d. Die Wissenschaft der Gesellschaft by Niklas Luhmann Book 58 editions published between and in 3 languages and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide. Art as a social system by Niklas Luhmann Book 18 editions published between and in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide In this book, which was originally published in German in by Suhrkamp Verlag, Frankfurt am Maim, the eminent social theorist Luhmann deceased, U.

He draws on three decades of research in the social sciences, phenomenology, evolutionary biology, cybernetics, and information theory, and combines it with intimate knowledge of art history, literature, aesthetics, and contemporary literary theory.


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The book also engages virtually every major theorist of art and aesthetics from Baumgarten to Derrida. Annotation copyrighted by Book News Inc.

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Die Funktion der Kunst und die Ausdifferenzierung des Kunstsystems. Wahrneming und Kommunikation: zur Reproduktion von Formen. Legitimation durch Verfahren by Niklas Luhmann Book 65 editions published between and in 3 languages and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide. Die Wirtschaft der Gesellschaft by Niklas Luhmann Book 58 editions published between and in 4 languages and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide Ben shu gong fen wei shi zhang, Bao kuo jia ge, She hui de jing ji zuo wei zi wo sheng cheng xi tong, Shi chang zuo wei jing ji xi tong de nei huan jing, Jing ji xi tong zhong de shuang xun huan deng nei rong.

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    Yet meaningful communication does not mean agreement in communication. Communication does not imply agreed contractual communication. There is no a priori synthetic original position among agreeing partners who attach the same God-given meaning to communication. This is what a theory of war communication has to consider.

    Communication is communication in conflict as well as in consensus.

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    Whatever communication is about, the past or about the future, it takes place in the present. Communication, about given resources and means or about hopes and goals, takes place in the present. Communication can even present past presents or future presents. Communication about history or about future risks depends upon the structure of present communication Luhmann ; a: Whether as expectations, decisions or risks, the present observations of such social phenomena take place in the present.

    Yet the present is not only the infinite instantaneous difference between the past and the future, but also the synchronic contemporary conflict between different, differentiated and even opposed temporal bindings. There is no agreement about how long time the present endures.

    That is what war is mainly about.

    Systems theory and legal theory

    The power that determines the time determines the will of the other and rules over war. Since will is time, will is only temporal binding. We observe the past and the future with contemporary theories Koselleck ; This generation was old enough to observe and too young to be responsible.

    In order not to complicate everything, I have selected one of the authors, Luhmann, and observed the social system of war with his theory.

    Niklas Luhmann’s system theory: A critical analysis | Šubrt | RUDN Journal of Sociology

    War is the neglect of the will of the other. Moral will remain, just as decisions will remain as decided decisions in time. Contested will can be opposed by other determinants, other time-binding measures. This interchange not only concerns matter in space territories and borders but also contested temporalities. Sustained thought is about will-formation, and the form of will should lead to a universal valid acceptance transcending the subjective maxims.

    Yet in the heterogeneous impure world, contest is at least as likely as an ideal sensus communis. Conflicts could also occur in another medium and become — if not resolved then — transformed into the form of law, as described in Die Metaphysik der Sitten. In the world, there is, according to our apperception, a co-existence of things at the same time, i.

    However, it is not obvious how Clausewitz uses this differentiation in the important chapters in his first book of Vom Kriege. Georg Simmel uses the same form analysis repeatedly to investigate social forms as money, fashion, dinners, urban life, strangers, and even war and conflict Simmel , , Modern social theory, of course, has arrived to far more sophisticated methodologies of for instance systems analysis than he could develop. With Luhmann, we see such forms of communication analysis from aesthetics to law and politics.

    He only shortly and rarely discusses the form and system of war. In particular, the duplification of codes is empirically fruitful to analyse the self-closure of systems, for instance the functional system of war to be distinguished from the military organizational system. The Danish school of applied systems theory operates with a number of discursive analytical strategies Andersen ; Luhmann c; Baecker ; Some basic distinctions have to be clarified in order to study the phenomena of war with systems theory.

    These tasks can be fulfilled by an adequate research program. Accordingly, first the organizational conditions of war have to be analysed. Second, the self-reference of war, as well as its risks and blind spots in its symbolic and mass mediatised asymmetric relation to its environment, in casu the blind spots of asymmetric war and.

    Third, the structural couplings to finance, families and psychic systems veterans , law and ethics, and to politics. On the one hand, of course, the historical material of war is incredibly overwhelming Harste Above all, a social theory of war has to distinguish between two observations of war. On the other hand, war turns into an impure dirty historically complex form of interchanges.

    Certainly, since the disasters in Iraq and Afghanistan, Clausewitz is reconsidered. Yet, why not rethink his abductive methodology. Communication gets meaning by reducing complexities about matter, sociality, and time. The same applies to contracts. Contracts are about a matter; they are among partners; and they are established in time and valid for a period of time, begin and end.

    But contracts are established in order to find another medium of communication than conflict Luhmann If conflict continues, communication turns into another form, into contest, battle and violence. Yet, in the course of historical evolution, fight and battle as the medium of conflict has apparently found unlikely and improbable forms, namely the form of war. This form established a continued contest that specialized and professionalized into a system of war.

    To a first order observation war is easily and too easily conceived as. Yet, this simple form is only the abstract moment that does not recognize long term strains and complexities for the implied partners, whether state organizations or guerrilla groups. Accordingly, the material force determines the outcome. To Fredrick the Great, who, by most measures, was probably the greatest tactical and strategic decision-maker in history, this first order observation is a wrong and thin way of observing the strategy of war.

    Strategy was not about winning battles and short term results, but about reflection and transformed long term planning, winning the peace, i. Battles can even be lost if the opponents are demoralized or loses their capacities to coordinate as experienced by Fredrick and later in time by Israel and General Nguyen Giap in the Vietnam War. Whenever wars endure, they turn into transformed conflicts.

    Plans get confused, obstructed, they run into friction and fog, mud and quagmire.