La semplessità (Italian Edition)
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Contact Copyright Privacy. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Contribution This abstract may be abridged. Refine Your Search Year. Disuffo: Design, prototipazione e sviluppo di un robot didattico open-source. The last one is when it organizes the whole movement with the feedbacks by reduction freedom and exploration degrees to perform the movement by repetitions which are differently among them because one movement is different to others. For this reason, Bernstein called this phenomenon repetition without repetitions Bernstein, The knowledge of structural and functional organization of the motor system has evolved and deepened in recent years, gradually abandoning the idea of a brain where the processing of sensory information was entrusted to different and dedicated cortical areas, according to a model in which sensory and motor information are very interdependent Latash, A central role in this reversal of perspectives is due to the discovery of mirror neurons, early in monkeys and later in humans.
Open loop and closed loop are two of the most important theory of motor control and learning, nowadays it must includes a new theory that can better explain the motor learning.
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It is motor imagery theory. Before to talk about it, it has to introduce some new neurological discoveries: Mirror neurons system. Studies in human brain have shown the existence of mirror neurons system similar to that discovered in monkeys while the Group of Parma of Giacomo Rizzolatti has noted that they responded both when the monkey performed directly the movement of reaching the food, either when was another individual to perform the action by recording the activity of certain neurons of motor area called F5 in grasping tasks in the brain of a monkey, a group of researchers Rizzolatti et al.
Whenever we see someone performing an action, in addition to activation of the visual areas, there is a concurrent activation of motor cortical circuits that are normally active during the execution of these actions. In other words, the observation of an action involves the simulation of the same. The fact that the motor system is active not only during the run, but also during observation of actions, suggests that exists a relationship between control and action representation Gallese et al. The first phase of motor learning is characterized by imperfect movements, a high dependence on feedback and a large cognitive and attention load Atkeson, While the immediate repetition of an observed action is supported almost exclusively by the mirror neuron system, learning by imitation requires the intervention of the prefrontal lobe, particularly in the area 46 of Brodmann, and some areas of the cortex anterior mesial.
The area 46, generally associated with functions related to working memory, in this case plays a role in combining elementary motor acts in more complex motor patterns. During the learning process, in fact, mirror neurons are responsible for the allocation of the observed action into individual pieces, which are then reassembled into a sequence so that appropriate action is reproduced as close as possible to that observed Zwicker et al.
The motor imagery is a cognitive process of mental simulation of an action in the absence of physical movement. MI was deeply investigated also by Marc Jeannerod. One of the most scientist about the neurological process. He had lived between and , its scientific life was entirely dedicated at neurology and neurophysiology, as well as other Scientifics about cognitive neuroscience and experimental psychology are interested. Specially, the mechanisms underpinning motor control, motor cognition are investigated by Decety in , Driskell and Copper in , Gallese and Rizzolatti between , Lafleur in , Sanders in It also defined as a state of general activation during which a person feels himself to perform an action.
The motor imagery should be distinguished from mental practice, the first refers to the cognitive process while, the second refers to the process of mental training that takes advantage of the first process. There are two types of motor imagery: in first-person and in third-person. In first person mode, the subject imagines himself to perform an action but not in the sense of seeing himself as an external or reflected image, in the sense to see what he would see, if he performed a movement and at the same time feel emotions, excitation, stress and changes of arousal.
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In third person mode, the person sees himself or another person as an external image, as with the use of a camera. The most effective for learning is that firstperson. Numerous studies have shown that the performance is optimized through the cognitive process of motor imagery. During the motor imagery the cerebral areas of the pre-motor cortex, the same which a muscular contraction would put in action, are activated. The pre-motor cortex is responsible for 20 session MP.
The pre-motor cortex is located in front of the primary motor cortex and laterally on the surface of the frontal lobe The execution and imagination activate the same regions of the cerebellum, basal ganglia and motor cortex. All this is possible thanks to mirror neurons which are the biological basis on which is based the motor imagery. Mirror neurons are a class of neurons which are activated when we make a move and when we observe it, as if the observer did the movement. Mirror neurons were discovered in the 90 s by a group of researchers in a macaque, group coordinator is Giacomo Rizzolatti.
In , the same group of researchers demonstrated the existence of a neuronal group, similar to that of macaques, also in man. Mirror neurons have been found in the pre-motor cortex and the parietal lobe, area to which deputed only motor function and not the cognitive function. The activation of mirror neurons allows to map on the same nervous substrate actions performed and observed or imagined. In this way you create an internal image released from execution. Mirror neurons are a particular class of visual-motor neurons which allows to learn and optimize a motor gesture without executing it.
Mirror neurons represent the space of internal sharing that allows us to imitate, learn and understand the intentions of motor events. The ability to create an inter-subjective space which is then shared with the world is connected to the role played by embodied simulation, neuro-scientifically based on mirror neurons. References Adams J. Sonawane S.
Brain Res. James 3, N. Besides optimal morphological characteristic and functional abilities female soccer players have to possess high level of speed, agility, strength, power, endurance, accuracy, flexibility, balance and coordination. Strength and power training main purpose is to increase the abilities of force production during the situations in the game which requires explosiveness jumps, turns, kicks , to prevent the injuries and decrease the recovery time duration.
The implementation of functional training focused on soccer-specific drills and plyometrics in order to improve explosive power may help conditioning in female soccer players as well as decrease the risk of ACL injuries which are times more likely to happen in female athletes Bien, Brent et al.
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Plyometric training includes jumps and hops in order to influence stretch-shortening cycle of the muscle. Rubley et al. Furthermore, control group showed significant decrease in kicking distance between the pretest and 14 th week Studies Rubley et al. The frequency of training 1 day per week allows adequate time for rest and recovery. Muscular strength and power can be improved by resistance training in female soccer players.
It induces greater neuromuscular stress which could theoretically result in greater neural adaptations compared to resistance training on stable surface. Results indicates no benefits of resistance training performed on an unstable surface in speed and explosive strength performance among female soccer players Oberacker et al. It can be used as a method to improve balance in order to decrease the risk of injuries.
Muscle strength can be increased by programmed strength training and use of supplementation improves it further more Larson-Meyer et al. Creatine supplementation has become widely used among athletes in order to improve strength and lean mass by stimulating muscle myosin synthesis and enhancing work performance. Larson-Meyer et al.
Results of their study showed that creatine supplementation enhances gains in muscle strength after 5 week of use. This finding concludes that creatine supplementation enhances female soccer players muscle strength and improves the abilities of a high intense activity. During a minute soccer match female player performs to movement changes and approximately are direction changes requiring turns at angles up to degrees Upton and Ross, Accordingly, agility plays a great role in successful female soccer performance, especially when accelerating, decelerating and reaccelerating.
Usual sprint distances are between 5 and 10 m and therefore in soccer acceleration, as the rate of change in velocity, is more important than maximal velocity. Results showed significant improvement in maximum velocity, measured by the yd sprint, as 22 session MP. Furthermore, female soccer players after asisted training program increased their acceleration during the initial 5-yd 4. Also resisted sprint training increased vertical jump height and peak power, while m sprint and T-test time stayed unchanged Upton and Ross, Improvement in short distance speed and speed with direction changes in the absence of an increase in peak power indicates that neuromuscular factors combined with supramaximal training can bring benefits in order to improve this variables in female soccer player.
It can be indicated that resisted training improves strength, while improvements caused by assisted training; because they were found on short distances 4. This finding demonstrates that both assisted and resisted training result with improved yd maximal velocity Upton and Ross, , Upton, Improved acceleration up to 5 and yd as a result of assisted training can be more useful in female soccer because of similar game demands.
Improved acceleration up to yd Sprint performance in female soccer players can be improved by using different methods of training such as resistance, speed and strength, velocity-specific strength and movement specific sprint associated exercises Bonnette et al. Assisted training enables a female player to run faster than their maximal speed overspeed training by increasing stride length, stride frequency, activity of the neuromuscular system as well as reducing flight time and ground reaction time Albertini et al.
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Also, sprinting mostly relies on the effective use of muscle stiffness during the stretch-shortening cycle McCurdy et al. Study McCurdy et al. Therefore, coaches should be advised to integrate both unilateral drop and countermovement jumps into the training programs in order to improve sprint performance. They suggest exercises such as high knees for hip flexor strength and flexibility, glut kicker for hamstring strength and flexibility, resisted running for stride length and short high speed sprints for stride frequency.
Teorija i metodika treninga. Miller T. Mike Hughes, Prof. Nic James, Prof. Goran Sporis, Prof. Henriette Dancs Scientific writing and research method in sport science. Borrelli, G. Capasso Abstract The wheelchair basketball is among the most popular sports for people with disabilities from the general public, but also the most practiced just think that you play in more than 80 countries and has about 25, practitioners. The wheelchair basketball, like other sports induces an improvement in cardiovascular and respiratory function, counteracting obesity and the onset of diseases such as diabetes, high cholesterol, blood pressure It good to specify that the mobility impaired who are wheelchair users, are exposed to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease due to a lack of functional activity of the lower limbs compared to the able-bodied population.
This aims to highlight the skills, resources and capabilities, thanks to the sport that is able to facilitate the possible compensations. From the perspective of sports training is defined as a process of complex action that arises is intended to affect, in a planned and aimed at an object specific , state level of athletic performance and the ability to in the best way possible to achieve such benefits in competitive situations.
The aim will be to identify whether there have been improvements with regard to specific skills in the three athletes covering among other things the same role which is to guard. The guard is close to the play, has a good shot and it must be a good passer to open defenses.
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Its main task is to penetrate enemy defenses, then serve the comrades free. Must be able to perform block mates and know how to exploit it to their advantage when they are taken. Keyword Paralympics, workouts, strength.