15. The Temptation of Torilla (The Eternal Collection)

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These estimates are extremely general and to some extent problematic. The 80 percent estimate, for instance, comes from Kodak advertising that promoted the adoption of its pre-tinted film stocks, and other sources suggest that this estimate may be exaggerated. Still, one of my chief aims here is to provide more precision to our knowledge of the uses of color in silent cinema.

For instance, at George Eastman House, I have carried out research on the Davide Turconi Frame Collection, which comprises approximately 23, nitrate frame fragments of early films usually two to three frames each—see. However, if one bases these estimates upon the eight hundred titles represented in the collection, rather than just the clips themselves, 74 percent of the titles contain some degree of color: 69 percent with tinting, 13 percent with toning, 9 percent with stenciling, and 3 percent with hand coloring.

From the Turconi Collection, we can gain at least a fragmentary snapshot of color usage during these early years of cinema. For a lower estimate of color usage during the early s, see F. Yumibe, Joshua : Moving Colors. Early Film, Mass Culture, Modernism.

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New Brunswick et al. Since the mid-nineteenth century, photographers had been developing methods of transforming silver chloride into various colored metallic compounds by the use of gold, platinum, and lead toning baths. Hopwood suggests that these methods were adapted to color films by the late s, although without more technical description it is difficult to ascertain the precise toning techniques he is referring to. Different methods allowed for a greater variety of available toning colors; however, some methods were more stable and colorfast than others.

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With metallic toning, the silver chloride was bleached and then dyed with a metal salt that only adhered to areas where the silver had been. The single bath process was quicker and cheaper, but since the colors produced were reactive both to heat and to light they were relatively unstable on film prints, particularly in comparison to the metallic tones produced by the double bath process, which were not prone to fading.

However, the range of metallic colored tones was relatively limited: iron blue, copper red, reddish-brown from uranium, greenish-yellow from vanadium, and warm brown from silver sulfide. In the first bath, the silver chloride was bleached into a mordant; the second bath was then a dye bath in which the colorant only adhered to the mordant in the image. A much wider range of colors could be employed in the mordanting process; however, as the colors were achieved through organic dyes, they also were more susceptible than metallic tones to fading over time.


Rather than fully immersing every inch of the scene, toning clings to objects and works by contrast with the lighter background. The usual method employed for tinting films is to put them through a solution of aniline dye. Red, green and blue are the colors mostly used. This is simply a cheap staining process.

The colors are not fixed or permanent, can be washed off by water, and fade in a short time under the intense light of the Projecting Kinetoscope. As the Edison ad notes, dyes could quickly fade during projection because of the intensity of the lamp. This instability of colorants makes it difficult to ascertain how widely they were employed on films during silent cinema, for so many of these early hues of the cinema have been lost through fading and destruction.

Kodak suggested in advertisements in the early s that as much as 80 percent of films were at least partially tinted, and a general periodization based upon surviving nitrate material is that tinting and toning were used somewhat infrequently before , but the methods began to be adopted more widely during the single-reel era and then throughout the s. Pre-tinted stocks could be combined with toning to produce a wider variety of color effects, but surviving prints suggest that dual tinting and toning also declined in the twenties.

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It is worth pointing out that in estimating the quantity of film tinting, Kodak was using these numbers to promote the adoption of its pre-tinted stock. Despite uncertainty regarding the s, the estimated increase in tinting and toning at the end of the first decade of the s is corroborated by surviving print evidence as in the Davide Turconi Collection, discussed in the introduction and by developments in positive cutting techniques during the single-reel era. The result is that every positive print must be spliced together in continuity after the various sections have been color treated, which is a more complicated and considerably more expensive process than producing continuity prints from an already edited negative.

One procedure developed during the single-reel era to help coordinate tinting, toning, and positive print assembly involved cutting the negative according to plans for tinting and toning. All shots that were to be colored a specific hue were printed together, then colored at the same time, separated once the colors dried, and finally cut into continuity. These slugs preceded each shot with identifying footage numbers for continuity editing and coloring instructions scratched or printed into them.

The information on the slugs was carefully coordinated with continuity scripts that provided print editors with detailed instructions for cutting the final print into continuity. This not only shows the growing complexity of film structure and print production during the single-reel era, but it also indicates how color was an integral part of the editing system and remained so into the s. Given how much of the material history of early color has been lost through decomposition and fading, slugs and their accompanying continuity scripts provide important traces of these processes, even after the actual colors have been lost.

In: Film History, Ces virages sont complets en six ou huit minutes. Virages mixtes. Les lavages ont dans ce virage une grande importance. The print was immersed in a chemical bath that substituted a colored compound for the silver in the emulsion. This dyed only the darker areas of the image, leaving the rest of the gelatin completely transparent.

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It is, therefore, easy to identify a toned print by the fact that the perforated edges are not colored and the light parts of the image appear white. The toning dye was a colored metallic salt. Toning was accomplished either in a single dye bath direct toning or in two baths.

In the latter case, the silver of the emulsion was replaced first by an uncolored salt, then by a pigmented salt. The original photographic image had to be extremely sharp; any haziness or nebulosity could jeopardize the final result. The silver emulsion was replaced by a nonsoluble silver salt.

The metallic salt itself had no color or was very dimly colored; it acted as the mordant, fixing the pigment. The intensity of the final color was proportional to the amount of the mordanting material, which in turn corresponded to the original quantity of silver in the emulsion.

In a print colored by mordanting, as in a toned print, the transparent parts of the image are white, and the margins of the film have no color. This rule is particularly useful in identifying the processes involved in those nitrate prints colored with a system combining tinting with mordanting or toning; tinting leaves its traces around the perforation, while toning is visible only on the image. In: Abel, Richard ed. New Brunswick : Rutgers University Press, pp. As such, the metallic silver of the image may be converted into an image composed of silver salts if a suitable supply of negative ions is available to form insoluble silver compounds ; these silver compounds may then be converted into insoluble salts of metals other than silver.

Many of the salts of heavy metals are highly coloured, so this chemical procedure serves as a method of converting a black-and-white silver image into a highly coloured non-silver image.

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In: Roger Smither ed. A Celebration of Nitrate Film. Brussels: FIAF, pp. Die einfachsten Tonungen, wie z. Fixierung des Films verwendet worden sind. Unser Auge beurteilt z. So wird z. Dieser wird sich als Schleier auf dem zu tonenden Film festsetzen und evtl. So ist z. Toning was perhaps less frequently used than tinting because it usually called for several baths for the already developed image to be coloured.

However, some single solution toning processes did occur, especially Iron-tone Blue and the various red-brown tones. Toning is the process of exchanging part or all of the original silver image for another coloured material. It had already been widely used for making coloured still paper prints but not all the paper techniques were suitable as the replacement material has to be at least partially translucent to project a coloured image.

Totally opaque dyes would simply be seen as black on projection. However, the lantern slide industry had already tried out most techniques and undoubtedly the new motion picture industry learnt from this. Toning colours the dark parts of the image leaving the clear parts unaltered since only the silver image, or part of it, is removed and replaced with another metal salt, a coloured dye or a coloured silver salt.

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It is therefore usually quite easy to distinguish a toned image from a tinted one provided the tone has not faded. Sepia toning, in which the silver image is replaced by reddish brown silver sulphide, was originally quite a fiery ginger colour by reflected light but this fades over the years to a dark brown that is sometimes mistaken for untoned silver. The most common form of toning even now sometimes used in still photography consisted of transforming the silver which is neutral and opaque into inorganic coloured salts of other metals. This is sometimes called metallic toning.

Using this procedure only a restricted number of colours could be achieved: red or red-orange an image of copper or uranium ferrocyanide , and blue an image of ferric ferrocyanide, also called Prussian Blue.